SpringBoot Token Based Authentication Example – MySQL + JWT+ Spring JPA + RestAPIs

Spring Boot Security JWT Token Based Authentication Example - MySQL + Spring JPA + RestAPIs

“How to build SpringBoot Token Based Authentication Example?” is one of the most common questions for Java development world. So in the tutorial, I will introduce how to build it with clearly architecture and coding examples.

Related posts:


Video Guide

Spring Security JWT Architecture – Springboot Token Based Authentication Example

This is diagram for Spring Security/JWT (Springboot Token Based Authentication Example) classes that are separated into 3 layers:
– HTTP
– Spring Security
– REST API

Spring Security Jwt Authentication Architecture Diagram
Spring Security Jwt Authentication Architecture Diagram

Look at the diagram above, we can easily associate these components with Spring Security Authentication process: receive HTTP request, filter, authenticate, store Authentication data, generate token, get User details, authorize, handle exception…

At a glance:
SecurityContextHolder provides access to the SecurityContext.
SecurityContext holds the Authentication and possibly request-specific security information.
Authentication represents the principal which includes GrantedAuthority that reflects the application-wide permissions granted to a principal.
UserDetails contains necessary information to build an Authentication object from DAOs or other source of security data.
UserDetailsService helps to create a UserDetails from a String-based username and is usually used by AuthenticationProvider.
JwtAuthTokenFilter (extends OncePerRequestFilter) pre-processes HTTP request, from Token, create Authentication and populate it to SecurityContext.
JwtProvider validates, parses token String or generates token String from UserDetails.
UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken gets username/password from login Request and combines into an instance of Authentication interface.
AuthenticationManager uses DaoAuthenticationProvider (with help of UserDetailsService & PasswordEncoder) to validate instance of UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken, then returns a fully populated Authentication instance on successful authentication.
SecurityContext is established by calling SecurityContextHolder.getContext().setAuthentication(…​) with returned authentication object above.
AuthenticationEntryPoint handles AuthenticationException.
– Access to Restful API is protected by HTTPSecurity and authorized with Method Security Expressions.

Receive HTTP Request

When a HTTP request comes (from a browser, a web service client, an HttpInvoker or an AJAX application – Spring doesn’t care), it will go through a chain of filters for authentication and authorization purposes.

So, it is also true for a User Authentication request, that filter chain will be applied until relevant Authentication Filter is found.

Filter the Request

In this architecture, we add our JwtAuthTokenFilter (that extends Spring OncePerRequestFilter abstract class) to the chain of filters.

class WebSecurityConfig extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {
 
    @Override
    protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
        ...
        http.addFilterBefore(authenticationJwtTokenFilter(), UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter.class);
    }
}

JwtAuthTokenFilter validates the Token using JwtProvider:

class JwtAuthTokenFilter extends OncePerRequestFilter {
    @Autowired
    private JwtProvider tokenProvider;
 
    @Override
    protected void doFilterInternal(...) {
        String jwt = getJwt(request);
        if (jwt!=null && tokenProvider.validateJwtToken(jwt)) {
            ...
        }
        filterChain.doFilter(request, response);
    }
}

Now we have 2 cases for Springboot Token Based Authentication Example:
– Login/SignUp: RestAPI with non-protected APIs -> authenticate Login Request with AuthenticationManager, if error occurs, handle AuthenticationException with AuthenticationEntryPoint.
– With protected Resources:
+ jwt token is null/invalid -> if Authenticated Error occurs, handle AuthenticationException with AuthenticationEntryPoint.
+ jwt token is valid -> from token, get User information, then create AuthenticationToken.

Create AuthenticationToken from Token

JwtAuthTokenFilter extracts username/password from the received token using JwtProvider, then based on the extracted data, JwtAuthTokenFilter:
– creates a AuthenticationToken (that implements Authentication)
– uses the AuthenticationToken as Authentication object and stores it in the SecurityContext for future filter uses (e.g: Authorization filters).

In this tutorial, we use UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken:

// extract user information
String username = tokenProvider.getUserNameFromJwtToken(jwt);
UserDetails userDetails = userDetailsService.loadUserByUsername(username);
 
// create AuthenticationToken
UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken authentication
        = new UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken(userDetails, null, userDetails.getAuthorities());
authentication.setDetails(new WebAuthenticationDetailsSource().buildDetails(request));

Store Authentication object in SecurityContext

SecurityContextHolder.getContext().setAuthentication(authentication);

SecurityContextHolder is the most fundamental object where we store details of the present security context of the application (includes details of the principal). Spring Security uses an Authentication object to represent this information and we can query this Authentication object from anywhere in our application:

Authentication authentication = SecurityContextHolder.getContext().getAuthentication();
// currently authenticated user
Object principal = authentication.getPrincipal();

getContext() returns an instance of SecurityContext interface that holds the Authentication and possibly request-specific security information.

Delegate AuthenticationToken for AuthenticationManagager

After AuthenticationToken object was created, it will be used as input parameter for authenticate() method of the AuthenticationManager:

public interface AuthenticationManager {
    Authentication authenticate(Authentication authentication)
            throws AuthenticationException;
}

We can see that AuthenticationManager is just an interface, the default implementation in Spring Security is ProviderManager:

public class ProviderManager implements AuthenticationManager, ... {
    private List providers;
}

Authenticate with AuthenticationProvider

AuthenticationProviders

ProviderManager delegates to a list of configured AuthenticationProviders, each of them will try to authenticate the User, then either throw an exception or return a fully populated Authentication object:

public class ProviderManager implements AuthenticationManager, ... {
    private List providers;
 
    public Authentication authenticate(Authentication authentication) throws AuthenticationException {
        for (AuthenticationProvider provider : getProviders()) {
            ...
            try {
                ...
                result = provider.authenticate(authentication);
                if (result != null) {
                    copyDetails(authentication, result);
                    break;
                }
            }
            catch (Exception...) {}
            ...
            return result;
        }
    }
}

These are some authentication providers that Spring Framework provides:

  • DaoAuthenticationProvider
  • PreAuthenticatedAuthenticationProvider
  • LdapAuthenticationProvider
  • ActiveDirectoryLdapAuthenticationProvider
  • JaasAuthenticationProvider
  • CasAuthenticationProvider
  • RememberMeAuthenticationProvider
  • AnonymousAuthenticationProvider
  • RunAsImplAuthenticationProvider
  • OpenIDAuthenticationProvider

DaoAuthenticationProvider

DaoAuthenticationProvider works well with form-based logins or HTTP Basic authentication which submits a simple username/password authentication request.
It authenticates the User simply by comparing the password submitted in a UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken against the one loaded by the UserDetailsService (as a DAO):

@Autowired
AuthenticationManager authenticationManager;
...
Authentication authentication = 
        authenticationManager.authenticate(
            new UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken(loginRequest.username, loginRequest.password)
        );

Configuring this provider is simple with AuthenticationManagerBuilder:

class WebSecurityConfig extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {
    @Autowired
    UserDetailsServiceImpl userDetailsService;
 
    @Override
    public void configure(AuthenticationManagerBuilder authenticationManagerBuilder) throws Exception {
        authenticationManagerBuilder
                .userDetailsService(userDetailsService)
                .passwordEncoder(passwordEncoder());
    }
 
    @Bean
    @Override
    public AuthenticationManager authenticationManagerBean() throws Exception {
        return super.authenticationManagerBean();
    }
}

Retrieve User details with UserDetailsService

We can obtain a principal from the Authentication object. This principal can be cast into a UserDetails object to lookup the username, password and GrantedAuthoritys.

Therefore, after authenticating is successful, we can simply get UserDetails from Authentication object:

UserDetails userDetails = (UserDetails) authentication.getPrincipal();
// userDetails.getUsername()
// userDetails.getPassword()
// userDetails.getAuthorities()

DaoAuthenticationProvider also uses UserDetailsService for getting UserDetails object. This is the common approach in which we only pass a String-based ‘username’ argument and returns a UserDetails:

public interface UserDetailsService {
    UserDetails loadUserByUsername(String username) throws UsernameNotFoundException;
}

It is simple to implement UserDetailsService and easy for us to retrieve authentication information using a persistence strategy:

@Service
public class UserDetailsServiceImpl implements UserDetailsService {
    @Autowired
    UserRepository userRepository;
 
    @Override
    @Transactional
    public UserDetails loadUserByUsername(String username) throws UsernameNotFoundException {
 
      User user = userRepository.findByUsername(username).orElseThrow(
          () -> new UsernameNotFoundException("User Not Found with -> username or email : " + username));
 
      return UserPrinciple.build(user); // UserPrinciple implements UserDetails
    }
}

Get GrantedAuthority

Another important method provided by Authentication is getAuthorities() that provides an collection of GrantedAuthority objects:

public interface Authentication extends Principal, Serializable {
    Collection getAuthorities();
}

A GrantedAuthority is an authority that is granted to the principal. Such authorities are usually ‘roles’, such as ROLE_ADMIN, ROLE_PM, ROLE_USER

Protect Resources with HTTPSecurity & Method Security Expressions

Configure HTTPSecurity

To help Spring Security know when we want to require all users to be authenticated, which Exception Handler to be chosen, which filter and when we want it to work. We implement WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter and provide a configuration in the configure(HttpSecurity http) method:

@Configuration
@EnableWebSecurity
public class WebSecurityConfig extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {
    @Override
    protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
        http.cors().and().csrf().disable().
                authorizeRequests()
                .antMatchers("/api/auth/**").permitAll()
                .anyRequest().authenticated()
                .and()
                .exceptionHandling().authenticationEntryPoint(unauthorizedHandler).and()
                ...;
        
        http.addFilterBefore(authenticationJwtTokenFilter(), UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter.class);
    }
}

Method Security Expressions

Spring Security provides some annotations for pre and post-invocation authorization checks, filtering of submitted collection arguments or return values: @PreAuthorize, @PreFilter, @PostAuthorize and @PostFilter.

To enable Method Security Expressions, we use @EnableGlobalMethodSecurity annotation:

@EnableGlobalMethodSecurity(prePostEnabled = true)
public class WebSecurityConfig extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {
    ...
}

In the code below, we use the most useful annotation @PreAuthorize to decide whether a method can actually be invoked or not:

@RestController
public class TestRestAPIs {
  
    @GetMapping("/api/test/user")
    @PreAuthorize("hasRole('USER') or hasRole('ADMIN')")
    public String userAccess() {
      return ">>> User Contents!";
    }
 
    @GetMapping("/api/test/pm")
    @PreAuthorize("hasRole('PM') or hasRole('ADMIN')")
    public String projectManagementAccess() {
      return ">>> Project Management Board";
    }
  
    @GetMapping("/api/test/admin")
    @PreAuthorize("hasRole('ADMIN')")
    public String adminAccess() {
        return ">>> Admin Contents";
    }
}

Handle AuthenticationException – AuthenticationEntryPoint

If the user requests a secure HTTP resource without being authenticated, AuthenticationEntryPoint will be called. At this time, an AuthenticationException is thrown, commence() method on the entry point is triggered:

@Component
public class JwtAuthEntryPoint implements AuthenticationEntryPoint {
   
    @Override
    public void commence(HttpServletRequest request,
                         HttpServletResponse response,
                         AuthenticationException e) 
                            throws IOException, ServletException {
      
        logger.error("Unauthorized error. Message - {}", e.getMessage());
        response.sendError(HttpServletResponse.SC_UNAUTHORIZED, "Error -> Unauthorized");
    }
}

Build Springboot Token Based Authentication Example

Technologies

For Springboot Token Based Authentication Example, we use below stack of tech:
– Spring Boot
– jjwt – 0.9.0
– Spring Security
– Spring JPA
– MySQL

Introduce JSON Web Token

JSON Web Token (JWT) defines a compact and self-contained way for securely transmitting information between parties as a JSON object.

Scenarios where JSON Web Tokens are useful:

  • Authorization: the most common scenario for using JWT. Single Sign On is a feature that widely uses JWT
  • Information Exchange: Because JWTs can be signed, JSON Web Tokens are a good way of securely transmitting information between parties.

JSON Web Tokens consist of 3 parts:

  • Header
  • Payload
  • Signature

-> JWT looks like Header-Base64-String.Payload-Base64-String.Signature-Base64-String

Header consists of two parts:

  • token type.
  • hashing algorithm.

-> Example:

{
  "alg": "HS256",
  "typ": "JWT"
}

Payload contains the claims. Claims are statements about an entity and additional information.
There are 3 types of claims ->

  • Registered claims -> These are a set of predefined claims: iss (issuer), exp (expiration time), sub (subject)
  • Public claims
  • Private claims

Example:

{
  "sub": "thomas-loizenai.com",
  "iat": 1537603195,
  "exp": 1537689595
}

Signature: To create the signature part you have to take the encoded header, the encoded payload, a secret, the algorithm specified in the header, and sign that.

Example:

HMACSHA512(
  base64UrlEncode(header) + "." +
  base64UrlEncode(payload),
  your-256-bit-secret
)

Combine all together, we get 3 Base64-URL strings separated by dots, example:

eyJhbGciOiJIUzUxMiJ9.eyJzdWIiOiJ0aG9tYXNna3oiLCJpYXQiOjE1Mzc2MDMxOTUsImV4cCI6MTUzNzY4OTU5NX0.m2YMjTYmOnfR7nnVNxqCzWbQ2FhKRe1eiizxnC2TF4eAoEzKlwo7PheVkKcxj08ST3vB-ZOIhiORvYVfSgzcog

When accessing a protected route or resource, the user agent should send the JWT, typically in the Authorization header using the Bearer schema.

Example:

Authorization: Bearer eyJhbGciOiJIUzUxMiJ9.eyJzdWIiOiJ0aG9tYXNna3oiLCJpYXQiOjE1Mzc2MDMxOTUsImV4cCI6MTUzNzY4OTU5NX0.m2YMjTYmOnfR7nnVNxqCzWbQ2FhKRe1eiizxnC2TF4eAoEzKlwo7PheVkKcxj08ST3vB-ZOIhiORvYVfSgzcog

Overview

Project Structure for Springboot Token Based Authentication Example

We create a SpringBoot project as below:

Springboot Jwt Authentication - Project Structure
Springboot Jwt Authentication – Project Structure

model package defines 2 entities User & Role that have many-to-many relationship:

Springboot Restapi Jwt Json Web Token Authentication Many To Many User-Role
Springboot Restapi Jwt Json Web Token Authentication Many To Many User-Role

repository package contains interfaces that use Hibernate JPA to store/retrieve data from MySQL database.
controller package defines RestAPIs for user signup/signin and testing protected resources that is secured with JWT.
message package defines payload data transferred from user agents (Browser/RestClient…) to RestAPIs and message back.
security package is the main part of the project that implements JWT security.

Goal

In the tutorial “Springboot Token Based Authentication Example”, we expose 2 RestAPIs to signup and signin:

Sign up: /api/auth/signup

Springboot Jwt Authentication - Register User Phrase
Springboot Jwt Authentication – Register User Phrase

– Sign In /api/auth/signin:

springboot jwt authentication - register user phrase - Jack signin
springboot jwt authentication – register user phrase – Jack signin

– In the tutorial Springboot Token Based Authentication Example, We expose 3 RestAPIs to test protected resources:

@GetMapping("/api/test/user")
@PreAuthorize("hasRole('USER') or hasRole('ADMIN')")
public String userAccess() {
  return ">>> User Contents!";
}
 
@GetMapping("/api/test/pm")
@PreAuthorize("hasRole('PM') or hasRole('ADMIN')")
public String projectManagementAccess() {
  return ">>> Board Management Project";
}
 
@GetMapping("/api/test/admin")
@PreAuthorize("hasRole('ADMIN')")
public String adminAccess() {
  return ">>> Admin Contents";
}

– Example Access Successfully:

springboot jwt authentication - register user phrase - jack access user content -successfully
springboot jwt authentication – register user phrase – jack access user content – successfully

– Example Unauthorized:

Springboot Jwt Authentication - Jack Access PM Content - Fail
Springboot Jwt Authentication – Jack Access PM Content – Fail

PRACTICE – SpringBoot Token Based Authentication Example

Create SpringBoot project

In the tutorial Springboot Token Based Authentication Example, We create a SpringBoot project with below dependencies:


<dependency>
  <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
  <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-data-jpa</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
  <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
  <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-security</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
  <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
  <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
  <groupId>io.jsonwebtoken</groupId>
  <artifactId>jjwt</artifactId>
  <version>0.9.0</version>
</dependency>

If you use MySQL database, add more the below dependency:

<dependency>
  <groupId>mysql</groupId>
  <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
  <scope>runtime</scope>
</dependency>

If you use PostgreSQL database, add more the below dependency:

<dependency>
        <groupId>org.postgresql</groupId>
        <artifactId>postgresql</artifactId>
        <scope>runtime</scope>
</dependency>

Create Models

User.java model contains 5 attributes:

  • id
  • name
  • username
  • email
  • password
package com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.model;

import java.util.HashSet;
import java.util.Set;

import javax.persistence.Entity;
import javax.persistence.FetchType;
import javax.persistence.GeneratedValue;
import javax.persistence.GenerationType;
import javax.persistence.Id;
import javax.persistence.JoinColumn;
import javax.persistence.JoinTable;
import javax.persistence.ManyToMany;
import javax.persistence.Table;
import javax.persistence.UniqueConstraint;
import javax.validation.constraints.Email;
import javax.validation.constraints.NotBlank;
import javax.validation.constraints.Size;

import org.hibernate.annotations.NaturalId;

@Entity
@Table(name = "users", uniqueConstraints = {
        @UniqueConstraint(columnNames = {
            "username"
        }),
        @UniqueConstraint(columnNames = {
            "email"
        })
})
public class User{
	@Id
    @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY)
    private Long id;

    @NotBlank
    @Size(min=3, max = 50)
    private String name;

    @NotBlank
    @Size(min=3, max = 50)
    private String username;

    @NaturalId
    @NotBlank
    @Size(max = 50)
    @Email
    private String email;

    @NotBlank
    @Size(min=6, max = 100)
    private String password;

    @ManyToMany(fetch = FetchType.LAZY)
    @JoinTable(name = "user_roles", 
    	joinColumns = @JoinColumn(name = "user_id"), 
    	inverseJoinColumns = @JoinColumn(name = "role_id"))
    private Set roles = new HashSet<>();

    public User() {}

    public User(String name, String username, String email, String password) {
        this.name = name;
        this.username = username;
        this.email = email;
        this.password = password;
    }

    public Long getId() {
        return id;
    }

    public void setId(Long id) {
        this.id = id;
    }

    public String getUsername() {
        return username;
    }

    public void setUsername(String username) {
        this.username = username;
    }

    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }

    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }

    public String getEmail() {
        return email;
    }

    public void setEmail(String email) {
        this.email = email;
    }

    public String getPassword() {
        return password;
    }

    public void setPassword(String password) {
        this.password = password;
    }

    public Set getRoles() {
        return roles;
    }

    public void setRoles(Set roles) {
        this.roles = roles;
    }
}

Role.java model contains 2 attributes:

  • id
  • rolename
package com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.model;

import javax.persistence.Column;
import javax.persistence.Entity;
import javax.persistence.EnumType;
import javax.persistence.Enumerated;
import javax.persistence.GeneratedValue;
import javax.persistence.GenerationType;
import javax.persistence.Id;
import javax.persistence.Table;

import org.hibernate.annotations.NaturalId;

@Entity
@Table(name = "roles")
public class Role {
    @Id
    @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY)
    private Long id;

    @Enumerated(EnumType.STRING)
    @NaturalId
    @Column(length = 60)
    private RoleName name;

    public Role() {}

    public Role(RoleName name) {
        this.name = name;
    }

    public Long getId() {
        return id;
    }

    public void setId(Long id) {
        this.id = id;
    }

    public RoleName getName() {
        return name;
    }

    public void setName(RoleName name) {
        this.name = name;
    }
}

RoleName.java:

package com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.model;

public enum  RoleName {
    ROLE_USER,
    ROLE_PM,
    ROLE_ADMIN
}

Implement Repository

UserRepository:

package com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.repository;

import java.util.Optional;

import org.springframework.data.jpa.repository.JpaRepository;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Repository;

import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.model.User;

@Repository
public interface UserRepository extends JpaRepository {
    Optional findByUsername(String username);
    Boolean existsByUsername(String username);
    Boolean existsByEmail(String email);
}

RoleRepository.java:

package com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.repository;

import java.util.Optional;

import org.springframework.data.jpa.repository.JpaRepository;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Repository;

import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.model.Role;
import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.model.RoleName;

@Repository
public interface RoleRepository extends JpaRepository {
    Optional findByName(RoleName roleName);
}

Implement JWT Security

– Configure WebSecurityConfig.java:

package com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.security;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.security.authentication.AuthenticationManager;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.authentication.builders.AuthenticationManagerBuilder;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.method.configuration.EnableGlobalMethodSecurity;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.web.builders.HttpSecurity;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.web.configuration.EnableWebSecurity;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.web.configuration.WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter;
import org.springframework.security.config.http.SessionCreationPolicy;
import org.springframework.security.crypto.bcrypt.BCryptPasswordEncoder;
import org.springframework.security.crypto.password.PasswordEncoder;
import org.springframework.security.web.authentication.UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter;

import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.security.jwt.JwtAuthEntryPoint;
import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.security.jwt.JwtAuthTokenFilter;
import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.security.services.UserDetailsServiceImpl;

@Configuration
@EnableWebSecurity
@EnableGlobalMethodSecurity(
		prePostEnabled = true
)
public class WebSecurityConfig extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {
    @Autowired
    UserDetailsServiceImpl userDetailsService;

    @Autowired
    private JwtAuthEntryPoint unauthorizedHandler;

    @Bean
    public JwtAuthTokenFilter authenticationJwtTokenFilter() {
        return new JwtAuthTokenFilter();
    }

    @Override
    public void configure(AuthenticationManagerBuilder authenticationManagerBuilder) throws Exception {
        authenticationManagerBuilder
                .userDetailsService(userDetailsService)
                .passwordEncoder(passwordEncoder());
    }

    @Bean
    @Override
    public AuthenticationManager authenticationManagerBean() throws Exception {
        return super.authenticationManagerBean();
    }

    @Bean
    public PasswordEncoder passwordEncoder() {
        return new BCryptPasswordEncoder();
    }
    
    @Override
    protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
        http.cors().and().csrf().disable().
                authorizeRequests()
                .antMatchers("/api/auth/**").permitAll()
                .anyRequest().authenticated()
                .and()
                .exceptionHandling().authenticationEntryPoint(unauthorizedHandler).and()
                .sessionManagement().sessionCreationPolicy(SessionCreationPolicy.STATELESS);
        
        http.addFilterBefore(authenticationJwtTokenFilter(), UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter.class);
    }
}

@EnableWebSecurity is used to enable web security in a project.
@EnableGlobalMethodSecurity(prePostEnabled = true) is used to enable Spring Security global method security.

-> Example:

@PreAuthorize("hasRole('USER') or hasRole('ADMIN')")
public String userAccess() {
 
@GetMapping("/api/test/pm")
@PreAuthorize("hasRole('PM') or hasRole('ADMIN')")
 
@GetMapping("/api/test/admin")
@PreAuthorize("hasRole('ADMIN')")

PasswordEncoder uses the BCrypt strong hashing function.

UserDetails Service

UserDetailsServiceImpl implements UserDetailsService that will override loadUserByUsername method. loadUserByUsername method will find a record from users database tables to build a UserDetails object for authentication.

package com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.security.services;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.UserDetails;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.UserDetailsService;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.UsernameNotFoundException;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;
import org.springframework.transaction.annotation.Transactional;

import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.model.User;
import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.repository.UserRepository;

@Service
public class UserDetailsServiceImpl implements UserDetailsService {

    @Autowired
    UserRepository userRepository;

    @Override
    @Transactional
    public UserDetails loadUserByUsername(String username)
            throws UsernameNotFoundException {
    	
        User user = userRepository.findByUsername(username)
                	.orElseThrow(() -> 
                        new UsernameNotFoundException("User Not Found with -> username or email : " + username)
        );

        return UserPrinciple.build(user);
    }
}

-> UserPrinciple will implement UserDetails.
UserPrinciple is not used directly by Spring Security for security purposes.
It simply stores user information which is later encapsulated into Authentication objects. This allows non-security related user information (such as email addresses, telephone numbers etc) to be stored.

package com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.security.services;

import java.util.Collection;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Objects;
import java.util.stream.Collectors;

import org.springframework.security.core.GrantedAuthority;
import org.springframework.security.core.authority.SimpleGrantedAuthority;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.UserDetails;

import com.fasterxml.jackson.annotation.JsonIgnore;
import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.model.User;

public class UserPrinciple implements UserDetails {
	private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;

	private Long id;

    private String name;

    private String username;

    private String email;

    @JsonIgnore
    private String password;

    private Collection authorities;

    public UserPrinciple(Long id, String name, 
			    		String username, String email, String password, 
			    		Collection authorities) {
        this.id = id;
        this.name = name;
        this.username = username;
        this.email = email;
        this.password = password;
        this.authorities = authorities;
    }

    public static UserPrinciple build(User user) {
        List authorities = user.getRoles().stream().map(role ->
                new SimpleGrantedAuthority(role.getName().name())
        ).collect(Collectors.toList());

        return new UserPrinciple(
                user.getId(),
                user.getName(),
                user.getUsername(),
                user.getEmail(),
                user.getPassword(),
                authorities
        );
    }

    public Long getId() {
        return id;
    }

    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }

    public String getEmail() {
        return email;
    }

    @Override
    public String getUsername() {
        return username;
    }

    @Override
    public String getPassword() {
        return password;
    }

    @Override
    public Collection getAuthorities() {
        return authorities;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean isAccountNonExpired() {
        return true;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean isAccountNonLocked() {
        return true;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean isCredentialsNonExpired() {
        return true;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean isEnabled() {
        return true;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean equals(Object o) {
        if (this == o) return true;
        if (o == null || getClass() != o.getClass()) return false;
        
        UserPrinciple user = (UserPrinciple) o;
        return Objects.equals(id, user.id);
    }
}
JWT Authentication Classes

JwtAuthTokenFilter extends OncePerRequestFilter.

org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter
-> Executes once per request. This is a filter base class that is used to guarantee a single execution per request dispatch. It provides a doFilterInternal method with HttpServletRequest and HttpServletResponse arguments.

In JwtAuthTokenFilter class, the doFilterInternal method will do:

  • get JWT token from header
  • validate JWT
  • parse username from validated JWT
  • load data from users table, then build an authentication object
  • set the authentication object to Security Context
package com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.security.jwt;

import java.io.IOException;

import javax.servlet.FilterChain;
import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;

import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.security.authentication.UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken;
import org.springframework.security.core.context.SecurityContextHolder;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.UserDetails;
import org.springframework.security.web.authentication.WebAuthenticationDetailsSource;
import org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter;

import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.security.services.UserDetailsServiceImpl;


public class JwtAuthTokenFilter extends OncePerRequestFilter {

    @Autowired
    private JwtProvider tokenProvider;

    @Autowired
    private UserDetailsServiceImpl userDetailsService;

    private static final Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(JwtAuthTokenFilter.class);

    @Override
    protected void doFilterInternal(HttpServletRequest request, 
    								HttpServletResponse response, 
    								FilterChain filterChain) 
    										throws ServletException, IOException {
        try {
        	
            String jwt = getJwt(request);
            if (jwt!=null && tokenProvider.validateJwtToken(jwt)) {
                String username = tokenProvider.getUserNameFromJwtToken(jwt);

                UserDetails userDetails = userDetailsService.loadUserByUsername(username);
                UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken authentication 
                		= new UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken(userDetails, null, userDetails.getAuthorities());
                authentication.setDetails(new WebAuthenticationDetailsSource().buildDetails(request));

                SecurityContextHolder.getContext().setAuthentication(authentication);
            }
        } catch (Exception e) {
            logger.error("Can NOT set user authentication -> Message: {}", e);
        }

        filterChain.doFilter(request, response);
    }

    private String getJwt(HttpServletRequest request) {
        String authHeader = request.getHeader("Authorization");
        	
        if (authHeader != null && authHeader.startsWith("Bearer ")) {
        	return authHeader.replace("Bearer ","");
        }

        return null;
    }
}

JwtAuthEntryPoint is used to handle Error exception when having unauthorized requests.

package com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.security.jwt;

import java.io.IOException;

import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;

import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;
import org.springframework.security.core.AuthenticationException;
import org.springframework.security.web.AuthenticationEntryPoint;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

@Component
public class JwtAuthEntryPoint implements AuthenticationEntryPoint {

    private static final Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(JwtAuthEntryPoint.class);
    
    @Override
    public void commence(HttpServletRequest request,
                         HttpServletResponse response,
                         AuthenticationException e) 
                        		 throws IOException, ServletException {
    	
        logger.error("Unauthorized error. Message - {}", e.getMessage());
        response.sendError(HttpServletResponse.SC_UNAUTHORIZED, "Error -> Unauthorized");
    }
}

JwtProvider is an util class, it implements useful functions:

  • generate a JWT token
  • valiate a JWT token
  • parse username from JWT token
package com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.security.jwt;

import java.util.Date;

import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Value;
import org.springframework.security.core.Authentication;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.security.services.UserPrinciple;

import io.jsonwebtoken.ExpiredJwtException;
import io.jsonwebtoken.Jwts;
import io.jsonwebtoken.MalformedJwtException;
import io.jsonwebtoken.SignatureAlgorithm;
import io.jsonwebtoken.SignatureException;
import io.jsonwebtoken.UnsupportedJwtException;

/**
 * @Copyright https://loizenai.com
 * @author loizenai.com
 *
 */

@Component
public class JwtProvider {

    private static final Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(JwtProvider.class);

    @Value("${loizenai.app.jwtSecret}")
    private String jwtSecret;

    @Value("${loizenai.app.jwtExpiration}")
    private int jwtExpiration;

    public String generateJwtToken(Authentication authentication) {

        UserPrinciple userPrincipal = (UserPrinciple) authentication.getPrincipal();

        return Jwts.builder()
		                .setSubject((userPrincipal.getUsername()))
		                .setIssuedAt(new Date())
		                .setExpiration(new Date((new Date()).getTime() + jwtExpiration*1000))
		                .signWith(SignatureAlgorithm.HS512, jwtSecret)
		                .compact();
    }
    
    public boolean validateJwtToken(String authToken) {
        try {
            Jwts.parser().setSigningKey(jwtSecret).parseClaimsJws(authToken);
            return true;
        } catch (SignatureException e) {
            logger.error("Invalid JWT signature -> Message: {} ", e);
        } catch (MalformedJwtException e) {
            logger.error("Invalid JWT token -> Message: {}", e);
        } catch (ExpiredJwtException e) {
            logger.error("Expired JWT token -> Message: {}", e);
        } catch (UnsupportedJwtException e) {
            logger.error("Unsupported JWT token -> Message: {}", e);
        } catch (IllegalArgumentException e) {
            logger.error("JWT claims string is empty -> Message: {}", e);
        }
        
        return false;
    }
    
    public String getUserNameFromJwtToken(String token) {
        return Jwts.parser()
			                .setSigningKey(jwtSecret)
			                .parseClaimsJws(token)
			                .getBody().getSubject();
    }
}

Implement RestControllers

Create Payload Message

LoginForm.java contains username & password ->

package com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.message.request;

import javax.validation.constraints.NotBlank;
import javax.validation.constraints.Size;

public class LoginForm {
    @NotBlank
    @Size(min=3, max = 60)
    private String username;

    @NotBlank
    @Size(min = 6, max = 40)
    private String password;

    public String getUsername() {
        return username;
    }

    public void setUsername(String username) {
        this.username = username;
    }

    public String getPassword() {
        return password;
    }

    public void setPassword(String password) {
        this.password = password;
    }
}

SignUpForm.java contains:

  • name
  • username
  • email
  • role
  • password
package com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.message.request;

import java.util.Set;

import javax.validation.constraints.*;

public class SignUpForm {
    @NotBlank
    @Size(min = 3, max = 50)
    private String name;

    @NotBlank
    @Size(min = 3, max = 50)
    private String username;

    @NotBlank
    @Size(max = 60)
    @Email
    private String email;
    
    private Set role;
    
    @NotBlank
    @Size(min = 6, max = 40)
    private String password;

    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }

    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }

    public String getUsername() {
        return username;
    }

    public void setUsername(String username) {
        this.username = username;
    }

    public String getEmail() {
        return email;
    }

    public void setEmail(String email) {
        this.email = email;
    }

    public String getPassword() {
        return password;
    }

    public void setPassword(String password) {
        this.password = password;
    }
    
    public Set getRole() {
    	return this.role;
    }
    
    public void setRole(Set role) {
    	this.role = role;
    }
}

JwtResponse.java is returned by SpringBoot server after successful authentication, it contains 2 parts:

  • JWT Token
  • Schema Type of Token
package com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.message.response;

public class JwtResponse {
    private String token;
    private String type = "Bearer";

    public JwtResponse(String accessToken) {
        this.token = accessToken;
    }

    public String getAccessToken() {
        return token;
    }

    public void setAccessToken(String accessToken) {
        this.token = accessToken;
    }

    public String getTokenType() {
        return type;
    }

    public void setTokenType(String tokenType) {
        this.type = tokenType;
    }
}
RestAPIs Controller

AuthRestAPIs.java defines 2 APIs:

  • /api/auth/signup: sign up
    -> check username/email is already in use.
    -> create User object
    -> store to database
  • /api/auth/signin: sign in
    -> attempt to authenticate with AuthenticationManager bean.
    -> add authentication object to SecurityContextHolder
    -> Generate JWT token, then return JWT to client
package com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.controller;

import java.util.HashSet;
import java.util.Set;

import javax.validation.Valid;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.http.HttpStatus;
import org.springframework.http.ResponseEntity;
import org.springframework.security.authentication.AuthenticationManager;
import org.springframework.security.authentication.UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken;
import org.springframework.security.core.Authentication;
import org.springframework.security.core.context.SecurityContextHolder;
import org.springframework.security.crypto.password.PasswordEncoder;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.CrossOrigin;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.PostMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestBody;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;

import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.message.request.LoginForm;
import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.message.request.SignUpForm;
import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.message.response.JwtResponse;
import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.model.Role;
import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.model.RoleName;
import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.model.User;
import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.repository.RoleRepository;
import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.repository.UserRepository;
import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.security.jwt.JwtProvider;

@CrossOrigin(origins = "*", maxAge = 3600)
@RestController
@RequestMapping("/api/auth")
public class AuthRestAPIs {

    @Autowired
    AuthenticationManager authenticationManager;

    @Autowired
    UserRepository userRepository;

    @Autowired
    RoleRepository roleRepository;

    @Autowired
    PasswordEncoder encoder;

    @Autowired
    JwtProvider jwtProvider;

    @PostMapping("/signin")
    public ResponseEntity authenticateUser(@Valid @RequestBody LoginForm loginRequest) {

        Authentication authentication = authenticationManager.authenticate(
                new UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken(
                        loginRequest.getUsername(),
                        loginRequest.getPassword()
                )
        );

        SecurityContextHolder.getContext().setAuthentication(authentication);

        String jwt = jwtProvider.generateJwtToken(authentication);
        return ResponseEntity.ok(new JwtResponse(jwt));
    }

    @PostMapping("/signup")
    public ResponseEntity registerUser(@Valid @RequestBody SignUpForm signUpRequest) {
        if(userRepository.existsByUsername(signUpRequest.getUsername())) {
            return new ResponseEntity("Fail -> Username is already taken!",
                    HttpStatus.BAD_REQUEST);
        }

        if(userRepository.existsByEmail(signUpRequest.getEmail())) {
            return new ResponseEntity("Fail -> Email is already in use!",
                    HttpStatus.BAD_REQUEST);
        }

        // Creating user's account
        User user = new User(signUpRequest.getName(), signUpRequest.getUsername(),
                signUpRequest.getEmail(), encoder.encode(signUpRequest.getPassword()));

        Set strRoles = signUpRequest.getRole();
        Set roles = new HashSet<>();

        strRoles.forEach(role -> {
        	switch(role) {
	    		case "admin":
	    			Role adminRole = roleRepository.findByName(RoleName.ROLE_ADMIN)
	                .orElseThrow(() -> new RuntimeException("Fail! -> Cause: User Role not find."));
	    			roles.add(adminRole);
	    			
	    			break;
	    		case "pm":
	            	Role pmRole = roleRepository.findByName(RoleName.ROLE_PM)
	                .orElseThrow(() -> new RuntimeException("Fail! -> Cause: User Role not find."));
	            	roles.add(pmRole);
	            	
	    			break;
	    		default:
	        		Role userRole = roleRepository.findByName(RoleName.ROLE_USER)
	                .orElseThrow(() -> new RuntimeException("Fail! -> Cause: User Role not find."));
	        		roles.add(userRole);        			
        	}
        });
        
        user.setRoles(roles);
        userRepository.save(user);

        return ResponseEntity.ok().body("User registered successfully!");
    }
}package com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.controller;

import java.util.HashSet;
import java.util.Set;

import javax.validation.Valid;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.http.HttpStatus;
import org.springframework.http.ResponseEntity;
import org.springframework.security.authentication.AuthenticationManager;
import org.springframework.security.authentication.UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken;
import org.springframework.security.core.Authentication;
import org.springframework.security.core.context.SecurityContextHolder;
import org.springframework.security.crypto.password.PasswordEncoder;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.CrossOrigin;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.PostMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestBody;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;

import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.message.request.LoginForm;
import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.message.request.SignUpForm;
import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.message.response.JwtResponse;
import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.model.Role;
import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.model.RoleName;
import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.model.User;
import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.repository.RoleRepository;
import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.repository.UserRepository;
import com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.security.jwt.JwtProvider;

@CrossOrigin(origins = "*", maxAge = 3600)
@RestController
@RequestMapping("/api/auth")
public class AuthRestAPIs {

    @Autowired
    AuthenticationManager authenticationManager;

    @Autowired
    UserRepository userRepository;

    @Autowired
    RoleRepository roleRepository;

    @Autowired
    PasswordEncoder encoder;

    @Autowired
    JwtProvider jwtProvider;

    @PostMapping("/signin")
    public ResponseEntity authenticateUser(@Valid @RequestBody LoginForm loginRequest) {

        Authentication authentication = authenticationManager.authenticate(
                new UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken(
                        loginRequest.getUsername(),
                        loginRequest.getPassword()
                )
        );

        SecurityContextHolder.getContext().setAuthentication(authentication);

        String jwt = jwtProvider.generateJwtToken(authentication);
        return ResponseEntity.ok(new JwtResponse(jwt));
    }

    @PostMapping("/signup")
    public ResponseEntity registerUser(@Valid @RequestBody SignUpForm signUpRequest) {
        if(userRepository.existsByUsername(signUpRequest.getUsername())) {
            return new ResponseEntity("Fail -> Username is already taken!",
                    HttpStatus.BAD_REQUEST);
        }

        if(userRepository.existsByEmail(signUpRequest.getEmail())) {
            return new ResponseEntity("Fail -> Email is already in use!",
                    HttpStatus.BAD_REQUEST);
        }

        // Creating user's account
        User user = new User(signUpRequest.getName(), signUpRequest.getUsername(),
                signUpRequest.getEmail(), encoder.encode(signUpRequest.getPassword()));

        Set strRoles = signUpRequest.getRole();
        Set roles = new HashSet<>();

        strRoles.forEach(role -> {
        	switch(role) {
	    		case "admin":
	    			Role adminRole = roleRepository.findByName(RoleName.ROLE_ADMIN)
	                .orElseThrow(() -> new RuntimeException("Fail! -> Cause: User Role not find."));
	    			roles.add(adminRole);
	    			
	    			break;
	    		case "pm":
	            	Role pmRole = roleRepository.findByName(RoleName.ROLE_PM)
	                .orElseThrow(() -> new RuntimeException("Fail! -> Cause: User Role not find."));
	            	roles.add(pmRole);
	            	
	    			break;
	    		default:
	        		Role userRole = roleRepository.findByName(RoleName.ROLE_USER)
	                .orElseThrow(() -> new RuntimeException("Fail! -> Cause: User Role not find."));
	        		roles.add(userRole);        			
        	}
        });
        
        user.setRoles(roles);
        userRepository.save(user);

        return ResponseEntity.ok().body("User registered successfully!");
    }
}

TestRestAPIs define 3 RestAPIs:

  • /api/test/user -> access by users has USER_ROLE or ADMIN_ROLE
  • /api/test/pm -> access by users has USER_PM or ADMIN_ROLE
  • /api/test/admin -> access by users has ADMIN_ROLE
package com.loizenai.jwtauthentication.controller;

import org.springframework.security.access.prepost.PreAuthorize;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.GetMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;

@RestController
public class TestRestAPIs {
	
	@GetMapping("/api/test/user")
	@PreAuthorize("hasRole('USER') or hasRole('ADMIN')")
	public String userAccess() {
		return ">>> User Contents!";
	}

	@GetMapping("/api/test/pm")
	@PreAuthorize("hasRole('PM') or hasRole('ADMIN')")
	public String projectManagementAccess() {
		return ">>> Board Management Project";
	}
	
	@GetMapping("/api/test/admin")
	@PreAuthorize("hasRole('ADMIN')")
	public String adminAccess() {
		return ">>> Admin Contents";
	}
}

Application Properties

– Configure for MySQL database:

spring.datasource.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/loizenaidb
spring.datasource.username=root
spring.datasource.password=12345
spring.jpa.generate-ddl=true

# App Properties
loizenai.app.jwtSecret=jwtLoizenai.comSecretKey
loizenai.app.jwtExpiration=86400

– Configure for PostgreSQL database:

## PostgreSQL
spring.datasource.url=jdbc:postgresql://localhost:5432/loizenaidb
spring.datasource.username=postgres
spring.datasource.password=123
#drop & create table again, good for testing, comment this in production
spring.jpa.hibernate.ddl-auto=create

Run & Check Results

Start SpringBoot

– Start Springboot server by commandline mvn spring-boot:run

– Check database tables:

springboot jwt authentication - database tables schema
springboot jwt authentication – database tables schema

– Insert data to roles table :

INSERT INTO roles(name) VALUES('ROLE_USER');
INSERT INTO roles(name) VALUES('ROLE_PM');
INSERT INTO roles(name) VALUES('ROLE_ADMIN');
SignUp

Sign-Up 3 users:

  • Jack has ROLE_USER role
  • Adam has ROLE_PM & ROLE_USER roles
  • Thomas has ROLE_ADMIN role
springboot jwt authentication - register user phrase - thomas admin role
springboot jwt authentication – register user phrase – thomas admin role

– Check database’s tables:

springboot jwt authentication - check database tables after insert data
springboot jwt authentication – check database tables after insert data
SignIn and Access Protected Resources

– Jack can access api/test/user url, can NOT access others.

-> Sign In:

Jack sign In
Jack sign In

Access Protected Resources:

Jack accesses User content successfully
Jack accesses User content successfully
Jack can NOT access PM content
Jack can NOT access PM content

Adam can access api/test/user and api/test/pm url.
Can NOT access /api/test/admin url.

-> Sign In:

Adam sign in successfully
Adam sign in successfully

-> Access Protected Resources:

Adam accesses user content
Adam accesses user content
Adam accessess PM content
Adam accessess PM content
Adam can NOT access Admin content
Adam can NOT access Admin content

– Thomas can access all URLs.

-> Sign In:

Thomas sign in successfully
Thomas sign in successfully

-> Access Protected Resource:

Thomas accesses Admin content successfully
Thomas accesses Admin content successfully

Sourcecode

All features of sourcecode for the tutorial Springboot Token Based Authentication Example – MySQL/PostgreSQL + Spring JPA + RestAPIs:

  • Implement JPA Repository
  • Implement SpringBoot JWT Security: UserDetails Service & JWT Authentication classes
  • Implement Protected RestControllers

SpringBootJwtAuthenticationExamples

– GitHub Sourcecode:

SpringBootJwtAuthenticationExamples – GitHub Sourcecode

Related posts

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